IB Biology Standard Programme of Study


The chemical basis of life – The molecules of cells


Option/
Topic
Assessment statement
Textbook reference
Topic 1
Statistical analysis



1.1.1
State that error bars are a graphical representation of the variability of data.
3-4
(1.1.5
Deduce the significance of the difference between two sets of data using calculated values for t and the appropriate tables.
7-10)



Topic 3
The Chemistry of life

Topic 3.1
Chemical elements and water

3.1.1
State that the most frequently occurring chemical elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
52
3.1.2
State that a variety of other elements are needed by living organisms including sulphur, calcium, phosphorus, iron and sodium.
52-53
3.1.3
State one role for each of the elements mentioned in 3.1.2.
53
3.1.4
Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of water molecules to show their polarity and hydrogen bond formation.
53
3.1.5
Outline the thermal, cohesive and solvent properties of water.
53-55
3.1.6
Explain the relationship between the properties of water and its uses in living organisms as a coolant, medium for metabolic reactions and transport medium.
53-55
Topic 3.2
Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins

3.2.1
Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds.
56
3.2.2
Identify amino acids, glucose, ribose and fatty acids from diagrams showing their structure.
57-58
3.2.3
List threeexamples each of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
57
3.2.4
State one function of glucose, lactose and glycogen in animals, and of fructose, sucrose and cellulose in plants.
58
3.2.5
Outline the role of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationships between monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides; between fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides; and between amino acids and polypeptides.
59-61
3.2.6
State three functions of lipids.
59
3.2.7
Compare the use of carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage.
59
(Topic 3.3
DNA structure

3.3.1
Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate.
62
3.3.2
State the names of the four bases in DNA.
62
3.3.3
Outline how DNA nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds into a single strand.
63
3.3.4
Explain how a DNA double helix is formed using complementary base pairing and hydrogen bonds.
63-64
3.3.5
Draw and label a simple diagram of the molecular structure of DNA.
64)

(Topic 6
Human health and physiology

Topic 6.5
Nerves, hormones and homeostasis

6.5.10
Explain the control of body temperature, including the transfer of heat in blood, and the roles of the hypothalamus, sweat glands, skin arterioles and shivering.
193, 194)

Option/
Topic
Assessment statement
Textbook reference
Option A
Human nutrition and health

A1
Components of the human diet

A.1.1
Define nutrient.
208
A.1.2
List the type of nutrients that are essential in the human diet, including amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins and water.
208
A.1.3
State that non-essential amino acids can be synthesized in the body from other nutrients.
209
A.1.4
Outline the consequences of protein deficiency malnutrition.
209-210
A.1.6
Outline the variation in the molecular structure of fatty acids, including saturated fatty acids, cis and trans unsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
210-212
A.1.7
Evaluate the health consequences of diets rich in the different types of fatty acids.
212-213
A2
Energy in human diets

A.2.1
Compare the energy content per 100g of carbohydrate, fat and protein.
220-221
A.2.2
Compare the main dietary sources of energy in different ethnic groups.
221-222
A.2.3
Explain possible health consequences of diets rich in carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
222-224
A3
Special issues in human nutrition

A.3.6
Evaluate the benefits of reducing dietary cholesterol in lowering the risk of coronary heart disease.
235

Glossary of technical terms

The spellings and explanations in this glossary will be used in examinations, but it is not to be taken as the only possible definition. The intention is to provide clear usable definitions for all words that are referred to in the assessment statements, by ‘define ...’. It should also reduce ambiguity where more than one word is used for the same concept, structure, etc.
Whether a student can recall and understand a definition may be determined in several ways including multiple choice questions, short-answer, and extended response questions.

Terms required for:

The chemical basis of life – The molecules of cells

Nutrient
A substance needed in the diet of an organism.